1 Novartis press release, March 27, 2019. “Novartis receives FDA approval for Mayzent® (siponimod), the first oral drug to treat secondary progressive MS with active disease.”
2 EMD Serono press release, March 29, 2019. “FDA approves MAVENCLAD® (Cladribine) Tablets as first and only shortcourse oral treatment for relapsing-remitting and active secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.”
3 Mavenclad (cladribine) prescribing information. April 2019. EMD Serono, Inc. Rockland, MA.
4 Biogen press release, February 25, 2019. “Alkermes and Biogen announce U.S. Food and Drug Administration acceptance of diroximel fumarate New Drug Application for multiple sclerosis.”
5 Celgene press release, March 25, 2019. “Celgene Submits Application to FDA for Ozanimod for the Treatment of Relapsing Forms of Multiple Sclerosis.”
6 Celgene press release, May 7, 2019. “Analysis showed oral ozanimod1 reduced brain volume loss across all age subgroups in adults with relapsing multiple sclerosis.”
7 Biogen Inc. press release, January 3, 2019. “First patient enrolled in Biogen’s Phase 3B study to evaluate extended interval dosing (EID) with natalizumab in multiple sclerosis.”
8 Cortese I, Muranski P, Enose-Akahata Y, et al. “Pembrolizumab treatment for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.” N Engl J Med. 2019;380:1597-605. 52 Multiple Sclerosis Association of America
9 Wolinsky JS, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P910]
10 Manouchehrinia A, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P881]
11 Gold R, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P920]
12 Fält A, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1228]
13 Comi G, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1235]
14 Salvetti M, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1236]
15 Zivadinov R, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P870]
16 Al-Izki S, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1275]
17 Kappos L, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1748]
18 Kingwell E, et al. “Multiple sclerosis: effect of beta interferon treatment on survival.” Brain. 2019; March 18. doing:10.1093/brain/awz055. [Epub ahead of print]
19 Brown JWL, Coles A, Horakova D, et al. “Association of initial disease-modifying therapy with later conversion to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.” JAMA. 2019;321(2):175-187.
20 Chataway J. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract 324]
21 Tavares A, Barrett O, Alagille D, et al. “Brain distribution of MS565, an imaging analogue of siponimod (BAF312), in nonhuman primates.” (P1.168) Neurology. 2014;82(10):suppl. P1.168.
22 Kappos L, Bar-Or A, Cree BAC, et al. “Siponimod versus placebo in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (EXPAND): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 study.” Lancet. 2018 391:1263-1273.
23 Mayzent (siponimod) prescribing information. March 2019. Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. East Hanover, NJ.
24 Giovannoni G, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of oral cladribine for relapsing multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2010. 362:416-426.
25 Hauser SL, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P590]
26 Arnold DL, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P588]
27 Hauser SL, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1229]
28 Tecfidera (dimethyl fumarate) prescribing information. December 2017. Biogen Inc. Cambridge, MA.
29 Safer Demibuker S, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1234]
30 Mancinelli CR, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P931]
31 Storm-Larsen C, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P960]
32 Bloomgren G, et al. “Risk of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.” N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1870-1880.
33 Tysabri (natalizumab) prescribing information. April 2018. Biogen Inc. Cambridge, MA.
34 Ruggieri S, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1770]
35 Vukusic S, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1746]
36 “Tysabri safety: a well-established profile.”
37 Kappos L, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P916]
38 Fox E, et al. “Real-world durability of relapse rate reduction in patients with multiple sclerosis receiving fingolimod for up to 3 years: a retrospective US claims database analysis.” J Neurol Sci. 2019;398:163- 170.
39 Oreja-Guevara C, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [P1239]
40 Kuhle J, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1747]
41 Gallagher P. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract 264]
42 Plegridy (peginterferon beta-1a) prescribing information. July 2016. Biogen Inc. Cambridge, MA.
43 Aubagio (teriflunomide) prescribing information. November 2016. Genzyme Corporation. Cambridge, MA.
44 Comi G, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1205]
45 Copaxone (glatiramer acetate) prescribing information. September 2018. Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc. North Wales, PA.
46 Hellwig K, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1004]
47 Flechter S, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1777]
48 Betaseron (interferon beta-1b) prescribing information. August 2018. Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc. Whippany, NJ.
49 Vollmer B, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1237]
50 Langer-Gould A, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract 88]
51 Shukla NM, Lotze T. ACTRIMS 2019. [Abstract P047]
52 Kappos L, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P965]
53 Novartis press release, October 10, 2018. “Breadth of data at ECTRIMS underpins Novartis’ relentless commitment to decoding the science of multiple sclerosis (MS) and decreasing the patient burden.”
54 Identifier: NCT02792218.
55 Zhu B, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract EP1619]
56 Identifier: NCT03222973.
57 Mellion M, et al. “Efficacy results from the Phase 2b SYNERGY study: treatment of disabling multiple sclerosis with the anti- LINGO-1 monoclonal antibody opicinumab.” (S33.004) Neurology. 2017;88(16Suppl).
58 Fox E. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P793]; Fox E. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract 229]
59 TG Therapeutics press release, March 1, 2019. “TG Therapeutics, Inc. announces final Phase 2 multiple sclerosis data presentation at the Americas Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ACTRIMS) Annual Meeting.”
60 TG Therapeutics press release, August 7, 2018. “TG Therapeutics announces completion of target enrollment in the ULTIMATE Phase 3 trials in multiple sclerosis.”
61 GeNeuro SA press release, January 21, 2019. “GeNeuro Announces Positive Results from Temelimab (GNbAC1) Phase 1 High-dose Clinical Trial.”
62 Hartung H. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract 143]
63 GeNeuro SA press release, March 12, 2019. “GeNeuro’s ANGEL-MS Phase 2b extension study confirms and extends the neuroprotective effects of temelimab in MS.”
64 Cohen JA, et al. “Safety and efficacy of the selective sphingosine 1- phosphate receptor modulator ozanimod in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RADIANCE): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.” Lancet Neurol. 2016;15(4):373-381.
65 Celgene press release, March 8, 2019. “Celgene Submits Application to EMA for Ozanimod for the Treatment of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.”
66 Comi G, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1191]
67 Comi G, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P869]
68 Deluca J, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P556]
69 identifier: NCT02907177.
70 Kappos L, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P568]
71 identifier: NCT02425644.
72 Arnold DL, et al. AAN 2019. [Abstract P3.2-060]
73 Identifier: NCT03093324.
74 Naismith R, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P708]
75 Lehmann-Horn K, et al. “Targeting B cells in the treatment of multiple sclerosis: recent advances and remaining challenges.” Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2013;6(3):161-173.
76 Montalban X. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P322]
77 MediciNova, Inc. press release. Oct. 26, 2017. “MediciNova announces positive top-line results from the SPRINT-MS Phase 2b trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) in progressive MS: achieved both primary endpoints including a significant reduction in whole brain atrophy and safety and tolerability.”
78 Goodman A, et al. AAN 2019. [Presentation 007: Session S12]
79 MediciNova, Inc. press release, April 1, 2019. “MediciNova Announces Results of Subgroup Analysis from the SPRINT-MS Phase 2b Trial of MN-166 (ibudilast) in Progressive MS.”
80 Eshaghi A, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1219]
81 Identifier: NCT03387670.
82 MS Society press release, September 12, 2018. “MS-STAT2 trial for secondary progressive MS begins UK-wide recruitment.”
83 Fitzgerald K, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract 364]
84 Brenton JN, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P958]
85 Katz Sand I, et al. ECTRIMS 2018 [Abstract P450]
86 Cortese M. Chitnis T, Ascherio A, Munger KL. Total intake of different minerals and the risk of multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2019; 92 (18). DOI:
87 Bistrom M, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1757]
88 Cortese M. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract 321]
89 Koduah P, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract 1781]
90 Cree BA, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [P1221]
91 Ciron J, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1222]
92 Rolla S, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P770]
93 Haigh S, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P446]
94 Wing A, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P649]
95 Identifier: NCT03161028.
96 Spain R, Powers K, Murchison C, et al. “Lipoic acid in secondary progressive MS: a randomized controlled pilot trial.” Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2017 Jun 28;4(5):e374.
97 Burt RK, Balabanov R, Burman J, et al. “Effect of nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation vs continued disease-modifying therapy on disease progression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomized clinical trial.” JAMA. 2019;321(2):165-174.
98 Das J. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract 230]
99 BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Inc. Dec. 17, 2018. “FDA accepts BrainStorm’s NurOwn® IND application for progressive multiple sclerosis.”
100 Identifier: NCT03799718.
101 Cotsapas C, et al for the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium. Cell. 2018;175:11679-1687.
102 Castro K, Ntranos A, Amatrada M, et al. “Body mass index in multiple sclerosis modulates ceramide-induced DNA methylation and disease course.” E BioMed. 2019.
103 Sorosina M, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P1068]
104 Sinnecker T. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract 138]
105 Maggi P, et al. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P815]
106 Tavazzi E, et al. AAN 2019. [P5]
107 Kappos L. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract 286]
108 Yaldizli O. ECTRIMS 2018. [Abstract 262]