References

1 Christensen JR, et al. Presented at ECTRIMS 2012; October 9-13, 2012; Lyon, France. [Abstract 170]
2 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01416181
3 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01633112
4 Vermersch P. ECTRIMS 2013 [Abstract 107] and Comi G, et al. ECTRIMS 2013. Session: Long-Term Treatment Monitoring.
5 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01707992
6 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02284568
7 Giovannoni G, et al. Presented at ECTRIMS 2012; October 9-13, 2012; Lyon, France. [Abstract P169]
8 Radue EW, et al. ECTRIMS 2013 [Poster 977]
9 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01064401.
10 Kappos L, et al. “Primary results of DECIDE: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled trial of daclizumab HYP vs. Interferon ß-1a in RRMS patients.” ACTRIMS-ECTRIMS 2014.
11 DOI: 10.1002/acn3.293
12 Kappos L, et al. “Ocrelizumab in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 2, randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial.” Lancet. 378 (9805), 1779-87 (2011).
13 Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) 2015. Abstracts 246 and 2368.
14 Amit Bar-Or, et al. “The MIRROR Study: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Dose-Ranging Study to Investigate the Safety and MRI Efficacy of Subcutaneous Ofatumumab in Subjects with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS).” Neurology. April 8, 2014 vol. 82 no. 10 Supplement S23.006.
15 Sorensen S, et al. ECTRIMS 2015. Poster P048. Barcelona, Spain.
16 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02222948
17 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02047734 and NCT02294058
18 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01665144
19 Olsson T, et al. [Abstract 152]; Freedman MS, et al. [Abstract P923]; Fernandez O, et al. [Abstract 919] All presented at ECTRIMS 2012; October 9-13, 2012; Lyon, France.
20 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02425644
21 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01450488
22 Vermersch P, et al. “OralMasitinib in Patients with Primary and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.” Presented at American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting. Seattle, WA, USA, 25 April-2 May 2009.
23 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01433497
24 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01982942
25 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01684761
26 Sorensen PS, et al. “No beneficial effect of minocycline as add-on therapy to interferon-beta-1a for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results of a large double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.” On behalf of the RECYCLINE Study Investigators.
27 Chataway J, et al. “The MS-STAT trial: high dose simvastatin demonstrates neuroprotection without immune-modulation in secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) – a phase II trial.” [London, Brighton, GB]
28 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01244139
29 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01721161
30 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01864148
31 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01772199
32 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01803867
33 Arun T, et al. “Targeting ASIC1 in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: evidence of neuroprotection with amiloride.” Brain. 2013 Jan; 136 (Pt 1):106-15.
34 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01802489
35 Raftopoulos R, et al. “Phenytoin for neuroprotection in patients with acute optic neuritis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.” The Lancet Neurology. Volume 15 , Issue 3 , 259 – 269.
36 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00950248
37 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02228213
38 Juryńczyk M, et al. “Immune regulation of multiple sclerosis by transdermally applied myelin peptides.” Ann Neurol. 2010 Nov;68(5):593-601. doi: 10.1002/ana.22219.
39 Hueber W, et al. “Effects of AIN457, a fully human antibody to interleukin-17A, on psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and uveitis.” Sci Transl Med. 2(52), 52ra72 (2010).
40 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01051817
41 Rudick, et al. Presented at ECTRIMS 2013
42 Miller DH, et al. “Firategrast for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.” Lancet Neurol. 2012 Feb;11(2):131-9. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70299-X. Epub 2012 Jan 5.
43 Limmroth, et al. “CD49d antisense drug ATL1102 reduces disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting MS.” Neurology. November 11, 2014 vol. 83 no. 20 1780-1788.
44 McCormick MM. “Highlights from the American Academy of Neurology’s 2014 Annual Meeting.” Published on mymsaa.org. June 4, 2014.
45 Gonsette R, et al. “Pixantrone: a B-cell-depleting immunosuppressant for multiple sclerosis patients with active disease.” Mult Scler. 2015 Aug 18. pii: 1352458515601902. [Epub ahead of print]
46 McCormick MM. “Highlights from the American Academy of Neurology’s 2014 Annual Meeting.” Published on mymsaa.org. June 4, 2014.
47 Ascherio A, et al. ECTRIMS [Abstract 96]
48 Mokry LE, et al. “Vitamin D and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis: A Mendelian Randomization Study.” DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed. 1001866. Published August 25, 2015.
49 Mowry EM, et al. “Vitamin D status predicts new brain magnetic resonance imaging activity inmultiple sclerosis.” Ann Neurol. 2012 Aug;72(2):234-40. doi: 10.1002/ana.23591.
50 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01490502
51 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01285401
52 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01198132
53 Linker R, et al. “High Dietary Salt Aggravates Experimental Neuroinflammation in Mice Via Induction of Th17 Cells.” Presented at AAN, 2013.
54 Farez MF, et al. ECRIMS 2013 [Abstract 119]
55 Krementsov D, et al. “Exacerbation of autoimmune neuroinflammation by dietary sodium is genetically controlled and sex specific,” The FASEB Journal, doi:10.1096/fj.15-272542.
56 Hernandez AL, et al. “Sodium chloride inhibits the suppressive function of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells.” J Clin Invest. 2015;125(11):4212-4222. doi:10.1172/JCI81151.
57 CMSC 2013: P20 “2-Year Follow-Up Results Of The HALT MS Clinical Trial.” (ITN033AI).
58 Nash, et al. JAMA Neurology, published Feb 2015.
59 Burman J, et al. ECTRIMS 2013 [Poster 1017]
60 Burt RK, et al. “Association of nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with neurological disability in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.” JAMA. 2015 Jan 20;313(3):275-84. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.17986.
61 Connick P, et al. “Autologous mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: an open-label phase 2a proof-of-concept study.” Lancet Neurol. 2012 February; 11(2): 150-156. PMCID: PMC3279697.
62 Uccelli A, et al. “MESEMS: a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled cross-over study to evaluate safety and efficacy of intravenous administration of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in patients with multiple sclerosis.” JAMA. 2015;313(3):275-284. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.17986.
63 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01933802
64 Ross C. Mult Scler 2014;20(1 Suppl):509-10.
65 International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium. “Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis.” Nature. 2011 Aug 10;476(7359):214-9. doi: 10.1038/nature10251.
66 Definition according to Merriam-Webster.