1 Kappos L, Amit B-O, Cree BA, et al. “Siponimod versus placebo in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (EXPAND): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 study.” The Lancet. 2018.
2 Novartis press release, March 23, 2018. “Phase III data in The Lancet show Novartis siponimod significantly improves outcomes in patients with secondary progressive MS.”
3 Sandoz press release, Feb, 13, 2018. “Sandoz announces US FDA approval and launch of Glatopa® 40 mg/mL three times-a-week generic option for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis.”
4 MediciNova press release, Feb. 1, 2018. “MediciNova announces MN-166 (ibudilast) demonstrated a 26% reduction in confirmed disability progression in the SPRINT-MS Phase 2b trial in progressive MS: Potential best-in-disease drug.”
5 Green AJ, et al. “Clemastine fumarate as a remyelinating therapy for multiple sclerosis (REBUILD): a randomised, controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial.” The Lancet. 2017;390:2481-2489.
6 Traboulsee A, et al ACTRIMS 2018. [Abstract 2459]
7 Fox E, et al. ACTRIMS 2018. [Abstract P050]
8 Roche press release, January 18, 2018. “Roche’s OCREVUS (ocrelizumab) approved in the European Union for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis and primary progressive multiple sclerosis.”
9 Identifier: NCT02637856.
10 Biogen press release, March 2, 2018. “Biogen and Abbvie announce the voluntary worldwide withdrawal of marketing authorizations for ZINBRYTA® (daclizumab) for relapsing multiple sclerosis.”
11 FDA press release, March 14, 2018. “FDA working with manufacturers to withdraw Zinbryta from the market in the United States.”
12 Tecfidera® (dimethyl fumarate) prescribing information. December 2017. Biogen Inc.: Cambridge, MA.
13 Signori A, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1891]
14 Bloomgren G, Richman S, Hotermans C, et al. “Risk of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.” N Engl J Med. 2012;366:1870-1880.
15 NYU Langone Health press release, February 5, 2018. “Extending dosing intervals reduces deadly side effect risk from popular multiple sclerosis drug.”
16 Ciocanu D, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1201]
17 Perumal J, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1264]
18 Butzkueven H, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P733]
19 FDA. “FDA expands approval of Gilenya to treat multiple sclerosis in pediatric patients.” May 11, 2018. Available at Accessed May 14, 2018.
20 Cohen J, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1879]
21 Cornelissen C, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1192]
22 Reder A, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1186]
23 Bajrami A, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1176]
24 Havrdova E, Arnold DL, Cohen JA, et al. “Alemtuzumab CARE-MS 5-year follow-up.” Neurology. 2017;89:1107-1116.
25 Oreja-Guevara C, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1190]
26 Rovira A, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P728]
27 Pelletier D, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P724]
28 Coles A, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1188]
29 Arnold D, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1189]
30 Horakova D, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1195]
31 Comi G, De Stefano N, Freedman MS, et al. “Subcutaneous interferon B-1a in the treatment of clinically isolated syndromes: 3-year and 5-year results of the phase III dosing frequency-blind multicentre REFLXION study.” J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2017;88:285-294.
32 Aubagio® (teriflunomide) prescribing information. November 2016. Genzyme Corporation: Cambridge, MA.
33 Freedman M, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1203]
34 Vermersch P, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1191]
35 Biogen press release, November 27, 2017. “Biogen and Alkermes announce license and collaboration agreement to develop and commercialize ALKS 8700 for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.”
36 Naismith R, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1170]
37 Merck press release, Dec. 4, 2017. “Merck’s Mavenclad (cladribine tablets) approved for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in Canada.”
38 Giovannoni G, Comi G, Cook S, et al. “A placebo-controlled trial of oral cladribine for relapsing multiple sclerosis.” N Engl J Med. 2010;362:416-426.
39 Kalincik T, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1138]
40 Teva Pharmaceuticals press release, May 5, 2017. “Teva and Active Biotech announce CONCERTO trial of laquinimod in RRMS did not meet primary endpoint.”
41 Active Biotech press release, Dec. 1, 2017. “Active Biotech announce results in ARPEGGIO Phase II trial with laquinimod in Primary Progressive MS.”
42 Granqvist M, et al. “Comparative effectiveness of rituximab and other initial treatment choices for multiple sclerosis.” JAMA Neurol. 2018;75(3):320-327.
43 Komori M, et al. “Insufficient disease inhibition by intrathecal rituximab in progressive multiple sclerosis.” Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. Feb 1, 2016; 3(3):166-79.
44 Amit Bar-Or, et al. “The MIRROR Study: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Dose-Ranging Study to Investigate the Safety and MRI Efficacy of Subcutaneous Ofatumumab in Subjects with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS).” Neurology. April 8, 2014; 82(10) Supplement S23.006.
45 Sorensen S, et al. ECTRIMS 2015. [Poster P048]
46 Identifier: NCT02792218.
47 Fox E, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P793]
48 TG Therapeutics press release, Sept. 15, 2017. “TG Therapeutics, Inc. announces the Phase 3 ULTIMATE trials evaluating TG-1101 in patients with multiple sclerosis are now open for enrollment.”
49 Cohen JA, et al. “Safety and efficacy of the selective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator ozanimod in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RADIANCE): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.” The Lancet Neurology. April 2016; 15(4):373-381.
50 Celgene press release, Oct. 27, 2017. “Efficacy and safety results from first Phase III trial of oral ozanimod (SUNBEAM™) versus an active comparator in relapsing multiple sclerosis presented at MSParis2017 – 7th Joint ECTRIMS-ACTRIMS Meeting.”
51 Celgene press release, Oct. 28, 2017. “Efficacy and safety results from second Phase III trial (RADIANCE™ Part B) of oral ozanimod versus an active comparator in relapsing multiple sclerosis presented at MSParis2017 – 7th Joint ECTRIMS-ACTRIMS Meeting.”
52 [Celgene February 27, 2018]
53 Havrdova E, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1151]
54 Identifier: NCT02425644.
55 Actelion press release, September 29, 2016. “Actelion to investigate all-oral combination therapy for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis.” []
56 AB Science press release, Jan. 4, 2018. “AB Sciences announces that based on interim analysis, IDMC recommended the continuation of the masitinib phase 3 study in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis with no requirement to increase the study sample size.” (
57 Metz LM, Li DKB, Traboulsee AL, et al. “Trial of minocycline in a clinically isolated syndrome of multiple sclerosis.” N Engl J Med. 2017;376:2122-33.
58 Chan D, Binks S, Nicholas JM, et al. “Effect of high-dose simvastatin on cognitive, neuropsychiatric, and health-related quality-of-life measures in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: secondary analyses from the MS-STAT randomised, placebo-controlled trial.” Lancet Neurol. 2017;16:591-600.
59 Identifier: NCT01721161
60 Sheikh S, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P718]
61 Biogen press release, Oct. 25, 2017. “Biogen announces AFFINITY Phase 2 trial initiation ofr opicinumbab (Anti-LINGO-1) in multiple sclerosis.”.
62 Raftopoulos R, et al. “Phenytoin for neuroprotection in patients with acute optic neuritis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.” The Lancet Neurology. March 2016; 15(3):259-69.
63 Toosy A, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P714]
64 Santhera Pharmaceuticals press release, March 5, 2018. “Santhera reports outcomes of exploratory trial with idebenone in PPMS conducted at the NIH.”
65 Innate Immunotherapeutics press release, June 27, 2017. “Innate Immunotherapeutics announces top-line results for trial of MIS416 in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.”
66 Antisense Therapeutics press release, Oct. 2, 2017. “ATL1102 for multiple sclerosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy update.”
67 Identifier: NCT01490502.
68 Beckmann Y, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract EP1504]
69 Spain S, et al. “Lipoic acid in secondary progressive MS.” Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2017;4e374;doi:10.1212/NXI.0000000000000374.
70 Tourbah A, et al. “MD1003 (high-dose biotin) for the treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.” Multiple Sclerosis Journal. September 1, 2016.
71 Granella F, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P750]
72 Massey J, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P1134]
73 Nash RA, et al. “High-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (HALT-MS): a 3-year interim report.” JAMA Neurology. Feb 2015; 72(2):159-69.
74 Atkins HL, et al. “Immunoablation and autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation for aggressive multiple sclerosis: a multicentre single-group phase 2 trial.” The Lancet. August 6, 2016; 388(10044):576-585.
75 Uccelli A, et al. “MESEMS: a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled cross-over study to evaluate safety and efficacy of intravenous administration of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in patients with multiple sclerosis.” JAMA. 2015; 313(3):275-284.
76 Sadiq S, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P721]
77 International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium. “Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis.” Nature. Aug 10, 2011; 476(7359):214-9.
78 Patsopoulos N (on behalf of the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium). “200 loci complete the genetic puzzle of multiple sclerosis.”
79 Zongqi X, et al. “Assessment of early evidence of multiple sclerosis in a prospective study of asymptomatic high-risk family members.” JAMA Neurol. March 2017; 74(3):293-300.
80 Tankou S, et al. ECTRIMS 2017. [Abstract P792]
81 Baranzini SE. “The international MS microbiome study (iMSMS): investigating the role of gut microbiota in multiple sclerosis through open collaboration.” ECTRIMS Online Library. Sep 15, 2016; 146272.
82 Yadav V, et al. “Low-fat, plant-based diet in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial.” Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. September 2016; 9:80-90.