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4 Giovannoni G, et al. ECTRIMS 2012. [Abstract P169]
5 Radue EW, et al. ECTRIMS 2013. [Poster 977]
6 Identifier: NCT01064401.
7 Kappos L, et al. “Primary results of DECIDE: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled trial of daclizumab HYP vs. Interferon ß-1a in RRMS patients.” ACTRIMS-ECTRIMS 2014.
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9 Identifier: NCT01416181.
10 Identifier: NCT01633112.
11 Vermersch P, ECTRIMS 2013 [Abstract 107]; and Comi G, et al. ECTRIMS 2013. [Session: Long-Term Treatment Monitoring]
12 Identifier: NCT01707992.
13 Identifier: NCT02284568.
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16 Sorensen S, et al. ECTRIMS 2015. [Poster P048]
17 Identifier: NCT02792218.
18 Identifier: NCT01665144.
19 Cohen JA, et al. “Safety and efficacy of the selective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator ozanimod in relapsing multiple sclerosis (RADIANCE): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.” The Lancet Neurology. April 2016; 15(4):373-381.
20 Identifier: NCT02047734 and NCT02294058.
21 Celgene press release, Sep 16, 2016, “Oral Ozanimod Efficacy and Safety Results at 2 Years from Phase 2 RADIANCE Trial of Patients with Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis Presented at 32nd ECTRIMS.” []
22 Olsson T, et al. [Abstract 152]; Freedman MS, et al. [Abstract P923]; Fernandez O, et al. [Abstract 919]; ECTRIMS 2012.
23 Identifier: NCT02425644.
24 Identifier: NCT02907177 and Actelion press release, September 29, 2016. “Actelion to investigate all-oral combination therapy for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis.” []
25 Identifier: NCT01450488.
26 Vermersch P, et al. “Oral Masitinib in Patients with Primary and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.” American Academy of Neurology (AAN) Annual Meeting, 2009.
27 Identifier: NCT01433497.
28 Identifier: NCT01982942.
29 Identifier: NCT01684761.
30 Sorensen PS, et al. “Minocycline added to subcutaneous interferon ß-1a in multiple sclerosis: randomized RECYCLINE study.” European Journal of Neurology. May 2016; 23(5):861-70.
31 Chataway J, et al. “The MS-STAT trial: high dose simvastatin demonstrates neuroprotection without immune-modulation in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) – a phase II trial.” [London, Brighton, GB]
32 Chataway J, et al. “Effect of high-dose simvastatin on brain atrophy and disability in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS-STAT): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.” Lancet. June 28, 2014; 383(9936);2213-21.
33 Identifier: NCT01244139.
34 Identifier: NCT01721161.
35 Identifier: NCT01864148.
36 Identifier: NCT01772199.
37 Identifier: NCT01803867.
38 Arun T, et al. “Targeting ASIC1 in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: evidence of neuroprotection with amiloride.” Brain. Jan 2013; 136 (Pt 1):106-15.
39 Raftopoulos R, et al. “Phenytoin for neuroprotection in patients with acute optic neuritis: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.” The Lancet Neurology. March 2016; 15(3):259-69.
40 Connick P, et al. “MS-SMART trial design and recruitment status: a multi-arm phase IIB randomised double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing the efficacy of three repositioned neuroprotective drugs in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.” ECTRIMS Online Library. Sep 16, 2016; 145886.
41 Green A, et al. “Positive Phase II Double-blind Randomized Placebo-controlled Crossover Trial of Clemastine.” April 12, 2016; AAN Annual Meeting 2016.
42 Identifier: NCT00950248.
43 Identifier: NCT02228213.
44 Juryńczyk M, et al. “Immune regulation of multiple sclerosis by transdermally applied myelin peptides.” Ann Neurol. Nov 2010; 68(5):593-601.
45 Identifier: NCT01051817.
46 Rudick, et al. ECTRIMS 2013.
47 Limmroth, et al. “CD49d antisense drug ATL1102 reduces disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting MS.” Neurology. November 11, 2014; 83(20):1780-1788.
48 McCormick MM. “Highlights from the American Academy of Neurology’s 2014 Annual Meeting.” Published on June 4, 2014.
49 Gonsette R, et al. “Pixantrone: a B-cell-depleting immunosuppressant for multiple sclerosis patients with active disease.” Mult Scler. May 2016; 22(6):817-21.
50 McCormick MM. “Highlights from the American Academy of Neurology’s 2014 Annual Meeting.” Published on June 4, 2014.
51 Ascherio A, et al. ECTRIMS. [Abstract 96]
52 Mokry LE, et al. “Vitamin D and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis: A Mendelian Randomization Study.” PLOS Medicine. August 25, 2015; 12(8):e1001866.
53 Mowry EM, et al. “Vitamin D status predicts new brain magnetic resonance imaging activity in multiple sclerosis.” Ann Neurol. Aug 2012; 72(2):234-40.
54 Hupperts R, et al. “High dose cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) oil as add-on therapy in subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis receiving subcutaneous interferon beta-1a. ECTRIMS Online Library. Sep 16, 2016; 147013.
55 Identifier: NCT01198132.
56 Identifier: NCT01490502.
57 Spain R, et al. “Lipoic acid for neuroprotection in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: results of a randomised placebo-controlled pilot trial.” ECTRIMS Online Library. Sep 16, 2016; 147064.
58 Tourbah A, et al. “MD1003 (high-dose biotin) for the treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.” Multiple Sclerosis Journal. September 1, 2016.
59 “2-Year Follow-Up Results Of The HALT MS Clinical Trial.” CMSC 2013. [P20, ITN033AI]
60 Nash RA, et al. “High-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (HALT-MS): a 3-year interim report.” JAMA Neurology. Feb 2015; 72(2):159-69.
61 Atkins HL, et al. “Immunoablation and autologous haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation for aggressive multiple sclerosis: a multicentre single-group phase 2 trial.” The Lancet. August 6, 2016; 388(10044):576-585.
62 Burman J, et al. ECTRIMS 2013. [Poster 1017]
63 Burt RK, et al. “Association of nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with neurological disability in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.” JAMA. Jan 20, 2015; 313(3):275-84.
64 Connick P, et al. “Autologous mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: an open-label phase 2a proof-of-concept study.” Lancet Neurol. February 2012; 11(2): 150-156.
65 Uccelli A, et al. “MESEMS: a randomized, double blind placebo-controlled cross-over study to evaluate safety and efficacy of intravenous administration of autologous mesenchymal stem cells in patients with multiple sclerosis.” JAMA. 2015; 313(3):275-284.
66 Identifier: NCT01933802.
67 Ross C. Mult Scler 2014; 20(1 Suppl):509-10.
68 International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium. “Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis.” Nature. Aug 10, 2011; 476(7359):214-9.
69 Patsopoulos N (on behalf of the International Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Consortium). “200 loci complete the genetic puzzle of multiple sclerosis.”
70 Zongqi X, et al. “Assessment of Early Evidence of Multiple Sclerosis in a Prospective Study of Asymptomatic High-Risk Family Members.” JAMA Neurol. March 2017; 74(3):293-300.
71 Fabian M. “Highlights from the 2016 ECTRIMS Annual Meeting.” Published on November 3, 2016.
72 Baranzini SE. “The international MS microbiome study (iMSMS): investigating the role of gut microbiota in multiple sclerosis through open collaboration.” ECTRIMS Online Library. Sep 15, 2016; 146272.
73 Yadav V, et al. “Low-fat, plant-based diet in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial.” Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. September 2016; 9:80-90.
74 Gupta S. “Diet: Changing the recipe.” Nature. 540:S13-S14. Published online November 30, 2016.
75 Identifier: NCT02647502.
76 Linker R, et al. “High Dietary Salt Aggravates Experimental Neuroinflammation in Mice via Induction of Th17 Cells.” AAN Annual Meeting 2013.
77 Farez MF, et al. ECRIMS 2013. [Abstract 119]
78 Krementsov D, et al. “Exacerbation of autoimmune neuroinflammation by dietary sodium is genetically controlled and sex specific,” The FASEB Journal. Aug 2015; 29(8):3446-57.
79 Hernandez AL, et al. “Sodium chloride inhibits the suppressive function of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells.” J Clin Invest. 2015; 125(11):4212-4222.