1 Goodin DS, et al. “Survival in MS: a randomized cohort study 21 years after the start of the pivotal IFN&#223-1b trial.” Neurology. 2012 Apr 24;78(17):1315-22.

2 Ziemssen T, et al. ECTRIMS 2013 [Abstract 973]

3 Fabian, et al. Presented at the— AAN Thursday, April 14, 2011. See

4 Khan, et al. “A phase 3 trial to assess the efficacy and safety of glatiramer acetate injections 40mg administered 3 times a week compared to placebo.” Presented at ECTRIMS 2012.

5 Lublin F, et al. “The CombiRx Trial: A Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Randomized Study Comparing the Combined Use of Interferon Beta-1a and Glatiramer Acetate to Either Agent Alone in Participants with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis – Clinical Outcomes.” Presented at AAN; April 21-28, 2012; PL02.003.

6 Wolinsky J, et al. “The CombiRx Trial: A Multi-Center, Double-Blind, Randomized Study Comparing the Combined Use of Interferon Beta-1a and Glatiramer Acetate to Either Agent Alone in Participants with Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis – MRI Outcomes.” Presented at AAN; April 21-28, 2012; S11.002.

7 Voskuhl R, et al. AAN 2014 [Abstract S23.003]

8 Calabresi P, et al. ECTRIMS 2013 [Poster 514] and Calabresi P, et al. AAN 2013; Abstract S31.006.

9 Deykin A, et al. AAN 2014 [Abstract S4.005]

10 Identifier: NCT00958009

11 Identifier: NCT01036165

12 Comi G, et al. “Comparison of two dosing frequencies of subcutaneous interferon beta-1a in patients with a first clinical demyelinating event suggestive of multiple sclerosis (REFLEX): a phase 3 randomised controlled trial.” Lancet Neurol. 2012 Jan;11(1):33-41. Epub 2011 Dec 4. Erratum in: Lancet Neurol. 2012 Feb;11(2):125.

13 Benesova Y, et al. ACTRIMS-ECTRIMS 2014 [P780]

14 Snow S, et al. “Pregnancy outcomes in patients exposed to interferon beta 1b.” Presented at ECTRIMS 2013.

15 Coyle P, et al. Presented at CMSC 2013 Poster SC06

16 Henson L J, et al. AAN 2014 [Abstract P4.161]

17 Ebrahimi N, et al. AAN 2014 [Abstract P4.156]

18 Cohen JA, et al. “Alemtuzumab versus interferon beta 1a as first-line treatment for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a randomised controlled phase 3 trial.” CARE-MS I investigators. Lancet. 2012 Nov 24;380(9856):1819-28.

19 Coles AJ, et al. “Alemtuzumab for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis after disease-modifying therapy: a randomised controlled phase 3 trial.” CARE-MS II investigators. Lancet. 2012 Nov 24;380(9856):1829-39.

20 Krieger S, et al. “Alemtuzumab Is Efficacious In Highly Active RRMS Patients In CARE-MS II.” Presented at CMSC 2013, Platform DX01.

21 Giovannoni G, et al. AAN 2014 [Abstract P3.165]

22 Fox R, et al. “5th Joint Triennial Congress of the European and Americas Committees for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS/ACTRIMS): Abstract 150.” Presented October 22, 2011.

23 Bloomgren G, et al. Presented at ECTRIMS 2011; Amsterdam, Netherlands. [P995] Fox and Rudick, Neurology, 2012.

24 Gold R and Kieseier B. Presented at ECTRIMS 2013, Session: Management of Risk in MS Therapy.

25 Identifier: NCT01485003

26 Christensen JR, et al. Presented at ECTRIMS 2012; October 9-13, 2012; Lyon, France. [Abstract 170]

27 Identifier: NCT01416181

28 Nikol, et al. Presented at ECTRIMS 2013, P1087

29 Identifier: NCT01071512

30 Freedman M, et al. ECTRIMS 2013 [Poster 544]

31 Kappos, et al. “28th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS).” Abstract 153. Presented October 12, 2012.


33 Miller A, et al. ECTRIMS 2013 [Abstract 99]

34 Kappos L, et al. ECTRIMS 2013 [Poster 1052]

35 Cohen J, et al. Presented at AAN 2013 [Abstract S51.006]

36 Barkhof F, et al. ECTRIMS 2013 [Poster 518] and Radue E, et al. ECTRIMS 2013 Session: Long-term Treatment Monitoring.

37 Laroni, et al. “Safety of the first dose of fingolimod for multiple sclerosis.” Presented at ECTRIMS 2013.

38 Identifier: NCT01216072

39, Accessed 19 January 2015.

40 Identifier: NCT01633112

41 Phillips JT, et al. ECTRIMS [Poster 996]

42 Cohn S, et al. AAN 2014 [Abstract P2.214]

43 Vermersch P. ECTRIMS 2013 [Abstract 107] and Comi G, et al. ECTRIMS 2013. Session: Long-Term Treatment Monitoring.

44 Identifier: NCT01707992

45 Identifier: NCT02284568

46 Giovannoni G, et al. Presented at ECTRIMS 2012; October 9-13, 2012; Lyon, France. [Abstract P169]

47 Radue EW, et al. ECTRIMS 2013 [Poster 977]

48 Identifier: NCT01064401

49 Primary results of DECIDE: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled trial of daclizumab HYP vs. Interferon &#223-1a in RRMS patients. Kappos L, Selmaj K, Arnold DL, Havrdova E, Boyko A, Kaufman M, Wiendl H, Rose J, Greenberg S, Demirhan E, et al. ACTRIMS-ECTRIMS 2014.

50 Identifier: NCT01212094

51 Kappos L, et al. “Ocrelizumab in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 2, randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial.” Lancet. 378 (9805), 1779-87 (2011).

52 Identifier: NCT01412333

53 Identifier: NCT01247324

54 Identifier: NCT01194570

55 The MIRROR Study: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Dose-Ranging Study to Investigate the Safety and MRI Efficacy of Subcutaneous Ofatumumab in Subjects with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). Amit Bar-Or, et al. Neurology April 8, 2014 vol. 82 no. 10 Supplement S23.006.

56 Identifier: NCT02222948

57 Identifier: NCT02047734 and NCT02294058

58 Identifier: NCT01665144

59 Olsson T, et al. [Abstract 152]; Freedman MS, et al. [Abstract P923]; Fernandez O, et al. [Abstract 919] All presented at ECTRIMS 2012; October 9-13, 2012; Lyon, France.

60 Pozzilli, et al. Presented at ECTRIMS 2013, P995

61 Identifier: NCT01450488

62 Vermersch P, et al. “Oral Masitinib in Patients with Primary and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.” Presented at American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting. Seattle, WA, USA, 25 April-2 May 2009.

63 Identifier: NCT01433497

64 Identifier: NCT01982942

65 Identifier: NCT01684761

66 Arun T, et al. “Targeting ASIC1 in primary progressive multiple sclerosis: evidence of neuroprotection with amiloride.” Brain. 2013 Jan;136(Pt 1):106-15.

67 Identifier: NCT01802489

68 Chataway J, et al. “The MS-STAT trial: high dose simvastatin demonstrates neuroprotection without immune-modulation in secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) – a phase II trial.” [London, Brighton, GB]

69 Sorensen PS, et al. “No beneficial effect of minocycline as add-on therapy to interferon-beta-1a for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: results of a large double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.” On behalf of the RECYCLINE Study Investigators.

70 Ascherio A, et al. ECTRIMS [Abstract 96]

71 Mowry EM, et al. “Vitamin D status predicts new brain magnetic resonance imaging activity in multiple sclerosis.” Ann Neurol. 2012 Aug;72(2):234-40. doi: 10.1002/ana.23591.

72 Identifier: NCT01490502

73 Identifier: NCT01285401

74 Identifier: NCT01198132

75 Linker R, et al. “High Dietary Salt Aggravates Experimental Neuroinflammation in Mice Via Induction of Th17 Cells.” Presented at AAN, 2013.

76 Farez MF, et al. ECRIMS 2013 [Abstract 119]

77 Identifier NCT01244139

78 Identifier: NCT01721161

79 Identifier: NCT01864148

80 Mi S, Pepinsky BS, Cadavid D. “Blocking LINGO-1 as a Therapy to Promote CNS Repair: From Concept to the Clinic.” CNS Drugs (2013) 27:493-503.

81 Identifier: NCT01772199

82 Identifier: NCT01803867

83 Identifier: NCT00355095

84 Identifier: NCT00950248

85 Identifier: NCT02228213

86 Jurynczyk M, et al. “Immune regulation of multiple sclerosis by transdermally applied myelin peptides.” Ann Neurol. 2010 Nov;68(5):593-601. doi: 10.1002/ana.22219.

87 Hueber W, et al. “Effects of AIN457, a fully human antibody to interleukin-17A, on psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and uveitis.” Sci Transl Med. 2(52), 52ra72 (2010).

88 Identifier: NCT01051817

89 Rudick, et al. Presented at ECTRIMS 2013

90 Yadav V, et al. “Recombinant T-Cell Receptor Ligand (RTL) for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 1, Dose-Escalation Study.” Autoimmune Dis. 2012;2012:954739. Epub 2012 Apr 5.

91 Miller DH, et al. “Firategrast for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.” Lancet Neurol. 2012 Feb;11(2):131-9. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70299-X. Epub 2012 Jan 5.

92 CD49d antisense drug ATL1102 reduces disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Limmroth at al. Neurology November 11, 2014 vol. 83 no. 20 1780-1788.

93 Gonsette R, et al. AAN 2014 [Abstract P3.170]

94 Moore C, et al. AAN 2014 [Abstract P3.167]

95 CMSC 2013: P20 “2-Year Follow-Up Results Of The HALT MS Clinical Trial.” (ITN033AI).

96 Nash et al, JAMA Neurology, published online Dec 29 2014.

97 Burman J, et al. ECTRIMS 2013 [Poster 1017]

98 Connick P, et al. “Autologous mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: an open-label phase 2a proof-of-concept study.” Lancet Neurol. 2012 February; 11(2): 150-156. PMCID: PMC3279697.

99 Identifier: NCT01933802

100 Ross C, Multiple Sclerosis 2014;20(1 Suppl):509-10.